Critical Thinking Case Study

Critical Thinking Case Study

The Assessment Rubric for Critical Thinking (ARC) Assessment Profile is a written demonstration of your competence to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate a problem and create a bridge between theory and application.

A successful ARC project will demonstrate your capacities to examine, question, critique, modify, and reflect on a healthcare informatics issue associated with the electronic health record. This will include utilizing your critical thinking skills to intellectually explore and critically examine a problem/issue, develop a perspective on this problem/issue and provide support in favor of your perspective.

There are six major goals within the ARC Assessment Profile. They are: Critical Thinking Case Study Communication, Analysis, Problem Solving, Evaluation, Synthesis, and Reflection.

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ARC Assessment Profile
Goal 1: CommunicationDefine the problem in your own words.
Questions: a. Identify the main idea or problem in the case study

b. Support your choice of the main idea or problem with details and examples.

c. Organize your findings (details & examples) in a logical and coherent format.

 

ARC Assessment Profile
Goal 2: AnalysisCompare & contrast the available solutions within the scenario .
Questions: a. Identify 2 – 3 possible solutions for the issue and/or problem.

b. Compare and contrast the pros and cons for each solution.

c.  Choose one solution you believe is the best one for addressing/solving the issue and or problem.

 

ARC Assessment Profile
Goal 3: Problem Solving Select one of the available solutions and defend it as your chosen solution.
Questions: a. Defend your chosen solution.

b. Back up your choice through facts and or evidence that support your solution.

 

ARC Assessment Profile
Goal 4: EvaluationIdentify the weaknesses of your chosen solution. 
Questions: a. Identify any areas of weakness within your chosen solution.

b. Identify hidden assumptions and beliefs you may harbor about your choice of solution.

 

ARC Assessment Profile
Goal 5: SynthesisSuggest ways to improve/strengthen your chosen solution (may use information not contained within the scenario)Critical Thinking Case Study.
Questions: a. Identify concepts and ideas from multiple sources that improve or strengthen your solution.

b. Identify any new found information and the impact that new information may or may not have on your solution.

c. Identify potential missing information and the impact that missing information may or may not have on your solution.

 

ARC Assessment Profile
Goal 6: ReflectionReflect on your own thought process after completing the assignment.
Questions: a. Identify the strengths and weaknesses in your thought process with this project.

b. Where there bias’ in your thinking?

c. What did you learn from doing this project?

d. What would you do different next time to improve your critical thinking skills process? Critical Thinking Case Study

Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes, descriptions and other data only are copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Applicable FARS\DFARS apply. Disclaimer: This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of written law, regulations, manuals, or other CMS guidance. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations, and other interpretive materials including the Internet-Only Manual and the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services for a full and accurate statement of their contents.

MODIFIER 59 ARTICLE The Medicare National Correct Coding Initiative (NCCI) includes Procedure-to-Procedure (PTP) edits that define when two Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS)/ Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes should not be reported together either in all situations or in most situations. For PTP edits that have a Correct Coding Modifier Indicator (CCMI) of “0,” the codes should never be reported together by the same provider for the same beneficiary on the same date of service. If they are reported on the same date of service, the column one code is eligible for payment and the column two code is denied. For PTP edits that have a CCMI of “1,” the codes may be reported together only in defined circumstances which are identified on the claim by the use of specific NCCI-associated modifiers. (Refer to the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services, Chapter 1, for general information about the NCCI program, PTP edits, CCMIs, and NCCI-associated modifiers.) One function of NCCI PTP edits is to prevent payment for codes that report overlapping services except in those instances where the services are “separate and distinct.” Modifier 59 is an important NCCI-associated modifier that is often used incorrectly. The CPT Manual defines modifier 59 as follows: Critical Thinking Case Study

“Distinct Procedural Service: Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to indicate that a procedure or service was distinct or independent from other non-E/M services performed on the same day. Modifier 59 is used to identify procedures/services, other than E/M services, that are not normally reported together, but are appropriate under the circumstances. Documentation must support a different session, different procedure or surgery, different site or organ system, separate incision/excision, separate lesion, or separate injury (or area of injury in extensive injuries) not ordinarily encountered or performed on the same day by the same individual. However, when another already established modifier is appropriate, it should be used rather than modifier 59. Only if no more descriptive modifier is available, and the use of modifier 59 best explains the circumstances, should modifier 59 be used. Note: Modifier 59 should not be appended to an E/M service. To report a separate and distinct E/M service with a non-E/M service performed on the same date, see modifier 25.”

Modifier 59 and other NCCI-associated modifiers should NOT be used to bypass a PTP edit unless the proper criteria for use of the modifier are met. Documentation in the medical record must satisfy the criteria required by any NCCI-associated modifier that is used.

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CPT only copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Disclaimer: This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of written law, regulations, manuals, or other CMS guidance. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations, and other interpretive materials including the Internet-Only Manual and the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services for a full and accurate statement of their contents.

1. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for different anatomic sites during the same

encounter only when procedures which are not ordinarily performed or encountered on the same day are performed on different organs, or different anatomic regions, or in limited situations on different, non-contiguous lesions in different anatomic regions of the same organ.

One of the common uses of modifier 59 is for surgical procedures, non-surgical therapeutic procedures, or diagnostic procedures that are performed at different anatomic sites, are not ordinarily performed or encountered on the same day, and that cannot be described by one of the more specific anatomic NCCI-associated modifiers – i.e., RT, LT, E1-E4, FA, F1-F9, TA, T1-T9, LC, LD, RC, LM, or RI. (See examples 1, 2, and 3) From an NCCI perspective, the definition of different anatomic sites includes different organs or, in certain instances, different lesions in the same organ. However, NCCI edits are typically created to prevent the inappropriate billing of lesions and sites that should not be considered to be separate and distinct. Therefore modifier 59 should only be used to identify clearly independent services that represent significant departures from the usual situations described by the NCCI edit. The treatment of contiguous structures in the same organ or anatomic region does not constitute treatment of different anatomic sites. For example: Critical Thinking Case Study

• Treatment of the nail, nail bed, and adjacent soft tissue distal to and including the skin overlying the distal interphalangeal joint on the same toe or finger constitutes treatment of a single anatomic site. (See example 4)

• Treatment of posterior segment structures in the eye constitutes treatment of a single anatomic site. (See example 5)

• Arthroscopic treatment of structures in adjoining areas of the same shoulder constitutes treatment of a single anatomic site. (See example 6)

2. Modifier 59 is used appropriately when the procedures are performed in

different encounters on the same day. Another common use of modifier 59 is for surgical procedures, non-surgical therapeutic procedures, or diagnostic procedures that are performed during different patient encounters on the same day and that cannot be described by one of the more specific NCCI-associated modifiers – i.e., 24, 25, 27, 57, 58, 78, 79, or 91. (See example 7) As noted in the CPT definition, modifier 59 should only be used if no other modifier more appropriately describes the relationship of the two procedure codes.

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CPT only copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Disclaimer: This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of written law, regulations, manuals, or other CMS guidance. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations, and other interpretive materials including the Internet-Only Manual and the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services for a full and accurate statement of their contents Critical Thinking Case Study.

3. Modifier 59 is used inappropriately if the basis for its use is that the narrative

description of the two codes is different. One of the common misuses of modifier 59 is related to the portion of the definition of modifier 59 allowing its use to describe a “different procedure or surgery.” The code descriptors of the two codes of a code pair edit usually represent different procedures, even though they may be overlapping. The edit indicates that the two procedures in general should not be reported together if performed at the same anatomic site and same patient encounter as those procedures would not be considered to be “separate and distinct.” The provider should not use modifier 59 for such an edit based on the two codes being “different procedures.” (See example 8) However, if the two procedures are performed at separate anatomic sites or at separate patient encounters on the same date of service, modifier 59 may be appended to indicate that they are different procedures on that date of service. Additionally, there may be limited circumstances sometimes identified in the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services when the two codes of an edit pair may be reported together with modifier 59 when performed at the same patient encounter or at the same anatomic site. 4. Other specific appropriate uses of modifier 59 There are three other limited situations in which two services may be reported as separate and distinct because they are separated in time and describe non-overlapping services even though they may occur during the same encounter.

a. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for two services described by timed codes provided during the same encounter only when they are performed sequentially. There is an appropriate use for modifier 59 that is applicable only to codes for which the unit of service is a measure of time (e.g., per 15 minutes, per hour). If two timed services are provided in blocks of time that are separate and distinct (i.e., the same time block is not used to determine the unit of service for both codes), modifier 59 may be used to identify the services. (See example 9)

b. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for a diagnostic procedure which precedes a therapeutic procedure only when the diagnostic procedure is the basis for performing the therapeutic procedure. When a diagnostic procedure precedes a surgical procedure or non-surgical therapeutic procedure and is the basis on which the decision to perform the surgical procedure is made, that diagnostic test may be considered

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CPT only copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Disclaimer: This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of written law, regulations, manuals, or other CMS guidance. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations, and other interpretive materials including the Internet-Only Manual and the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services for a full and accurate statement of their contents.

 

to be a separate and distinct procedure as long as (a) it occurs before the therapeutic procedure and is not interspersed with services that are required for the therapeutic intervention; (b) it clearly provides the information needed to decide whether to proceed with the therapeutic procedure; and (c) it does not constitute a service that would have otherwise been required during the therapeutic intervention. (See example 10) If the diagnostic procedure is an inherent component of the surgical procedure, it should not be reported separately.

c. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for a diagnostic procedure which occurs subsequent to a completed therapeutic procedure only when the diagnostic procedure is not a common, expected, or necessary follow-up to the therapeutic procedure. When a diagnostic procedure follows the surgical procedure or non-surgical therapeutic procedure, that diagnostic procedure may be considered to be a separate and distinct procedure as long as (a) it occurs after the completion of the therapeutic procedure and is not interspersed with or otherwise commingled with services that are only required for the therapeutic intervention, and (b) it does not constitute a service that would have otherwise been required during the therapeutic intervention. If the post- procedure diagnostic procedure is an inherent component or otherwise included (or not separately payable) post-procedure service of the surgical procedure or non-surgical therapeutic procedure, it should not be reported separately. Use of modifier 59 does not require a different diagnosis for each HCPCS/CPT coded procedure. Conversely, different diagnoses are not adequate criteria for use of modifier 59. The HCPCS/CPT codes remain bundled unless the procedures are performed at different anatomic sites or separate patient encounters or meet one of the other three scenarios described above. Modifiers XE, XS, XP, XU are effective January 1, 2015. These modifiers were developed to provide greater reporting specificity in situations where modifier 59 was previously reported and may be utilized in lieu of modifier 59 whenever possible. (Modifier 59 should only be utilized if no other more specific modifier is appropriate.) Although NCCI will eventually require use of these modifiers rather than modifier 59 with certain edits, providers may begin using them for claims with dates of service on or after January 1, 2015. The modifiers are defined as follows: XE – “Separate encounter, A service that is distinct because it occurred during a separate encounter” This modifier should only be used to describe separate encounters on the same date of service.

 

 

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CPT only copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Disclaimer: This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of written law, regulations, manuals, or other CMS guidance. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations, and other interpretive materials including the Internet-Only Manual and the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services for a full and accurate statement of their contents.

 

XS – “Separate Structure, A service that is distinct because it was performed on a separate organ/structure” XP – “Separate Practitioner, A service that is distinct because it was performed by a different practitioner” XU – “Unusual Non-Overlapping Service, The use of a service that is distinct because it does not overlap usual components of the main service” EXAMPLES OF MODIFIER 59 USAGE Example 1: Column 1 Code / Column 2 Code – 17000/11100 >CPT Code 17000 – Destruction (eg, laser surgery, electrosurgery, cryosurgery, chemosurgery, surgical curettement), premalignant lesions (eg, actinic keratoses); first lesion >CPT Code 11100 – Biopsy of skin, subcutaneous tissue and/or mucous membrane (including simple closure), unless otherwise listed; single lesion Modifier 59 may be reported with code 11100 if the procedures are performed at different anatomic sites on the same side of the body and a specific anatomic modifier is not applicable. If the procedures are performed on different sides of the body, modifiers RT and LT or another pair of anatomic modifiers should be used, not modifier 59. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for different anatomic sites during the same encounter only when procedures which are not ordinarily performed or encountered on the same day are performed on different organs, or different anatomic regions, or in limited situations on different, non-contiguous lesions in different anatomic regions of the same organ. ________________________________________________________________________

 

 

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CPT only copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Disclaimer: This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of written law, regulations, manuals, or other CMS guidance. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations, and other interpretive materials including the Internet-Only Manual and the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services for a full and accurate statement of their contents.

 

Example 2: Column 1 Code/Column 2 Code 47370/76942 >CPT Code 47370 – Laparoscopy, surgical, ablation of 1 or more liver tumor(s); radiofrequency >CPT Code 76942 – Ultrasonic guidance for needle placement (eg, biopsy, aspiration, injection, localization device), imaging supervision and interpretation CPT code 76942 should not be reported and modifier 59 should not be used if the ultrasonic guidance is for needle placement for the laparoscopic liver tumor ablation procedure. Code 76942 may be reported with modifier 59 if the ultrasonic guidance for needle placement is unrelated to the laparoscopic liver tumor ablation procedure. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for different anatomic sites during the same encounter only when procedures which are not ordinarily performed or encountered on the same day are performed on different organs, or different anatomic regions, or in limited situations on different, non-contiguous lesions in different anatomic regions of the same organ. ________________________________________________________________________ Example 3: Column 1 Code/Column 2 Code 93453/76000 >CPT Code 93453 – Combined right and left heart catheterization including intraprocedural injection(s) for left ventriculography, imaging supervision and interpretation, when performed >CPT Code 76000 – Fluoroscopy (separate procedure), up to 1 hour physician or other qualified health care professional time CPT code 76000 should not be reported and modifier 59 should not be used for fluoroscopy that is used in conjunction with a cardiac catheterization procedure. Modifier 59 may be reported with code 76000 if the fluoroscopy is performed for a procedure unrelated to the cardiac catheterization procedure. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for different anatomic sites during the same encounter only when procedures which are not ordinarily performed or encountered on the same day are performed on different organs, or different anatomic regions, or in limited situations on different, non-contiguous lesions in different anatomic regions of the same organ. _______________________________________________________________________

 

 

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CPT only copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Disclaimer: This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of written law, regulations, manuals, or other CMS guidance. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations, and other interpretive materials including the Internet-Only Manual and the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services for a full and accurate statement of their contents.

 

Example 4: Column 1 Code / Column 2 Code – 11055/11720 >CPT Code 11055 – Paring or cutting of benign hyperkeratotic lesion (eg, corn or callus); single lesion >CPT Code 11720 – Debridement of nail(s) by any method(s); 1 to 5 CPT codes 11720 and 11055 should not be reported together for services performed on skin distal to and including the skin overlying the distal interphalangeal joint of the same toe. Modifier 59 should not be used if a nail is debrided on the same toe on which a hyperkeratotic lesion of the skin on or distal to the distal interphalangeal joint is pared. Modifier 59 may be reported with code 11720 if one to five nails are debrided and a hyperkeratotic lesion is pared on a toe other than one with a debrided toenail or the hyperkeratotic lesion is proximal to the skin overlying the distal interphalangeal joint of a toe on which a nail is debrided. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for different anatomic sites during the same encounter only when procedures which are not ordinarily performed or encountered on the same day are performed on different organs, or different anatomic regions, or in limited situations on different, non-contiguous lesions in different anatomic regions of the same organ. _______________________________________________________________________ Example 5: Column 1 Code / Column 2 code – 67210/67220 >CPT Code 67210 – Destruction of localized lesion of retina (eg, macular edema, tumors), 1 or more sessions; photocoagulation >CPT Code 67220 – Destruction of localized lesion of choroid (eg, choroidal neovascularization); photocoagulation (eg, laser), 1 or more sessions CPT code 67220 should not be reported and modifier 59 should not be used if both procedures are performed during the same operative session because the retina and choroid are contiguous structures of the same organ. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for different anatomic sites during the same encounter only when procedures which are not ordinarily performed or encountered on the same day are performed on different organs, or different anatomic regions, or in limited situations on different, non-contiguous lesions in different anatomic regions of the same organ Critical Thinking Case Study.

 

 

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CPT only copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Disclaimer: This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of written law, regulations, manuals, or other CMS guidance. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations, and other interpretive materials including the Internet-Only Manual and the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services for a full and accurate statement of their contents.

 

_______________________________________________________________________ Example 6: Column 1 Code / Column 2 Code – 29827/29820 >CPT Code 29827 – Arthroscopy, shoulder, surgical; with rotator cuff repair >CPT Code 29820 – Arthroscopy, shoulder, surgical; synovectomy, partial CPT code 29820 should not be reported and modifier 59 should not be used if both procedures are performed on the same shoulder during the same operative session because the shoulder joint is a single anatomic structure. If the procedures are performed on different shoulders, modifiers RT and LT should be used, not modifier 59. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for different anatomic sites during the same encounter only when procedures which are not ordinarily performed or encountered on the same day are performed on different organs, or different anatomic regions, or in limited situations on different, non-contiguous lesions in different anatomic regions of the same organ. _____________________________________________________________________ Example 7: Column 1 Code / Column 2 Code – 93015/93040 >CPT Code 93015 – Cardiovascular stress test using maximal or submaximal treadmill or bicycle exercise, continuous electrocardiographic monitoring, and/or pharmacological stress; with supervision, interpretation and report >CPT Code 93040 – Rhythm ECG, 1 – 3 leads; with interpretation and report Modifier 59 may be reported if the rhythm ECG is performed at a different encounter than the cardiovascular stress test. If a rhythm ECG is performed during the cardiovascular stress test encounter, CPT code 93040 should not be reported and modifier 59 should not be used. Modifier 59 is used appropriately when the procedures are performed in different encounters on the same day. _______________________________________________________________________

 

 

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CPT only copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Disclaimer: This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of written law, regulations, manuals, or other CMS guidance. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations, and other interpretive materials including the Internet-Only Manual and the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services for a full and accurate statement of their contents.

 

Example 8: Column 1 Code/Column 2 code – 34833/34820 >CPT code 34833 – Open iliac artery exposure with creation of conduit for delivery of endovascular prosthesis or for establishment of cardiopulmonary bypass, by abdominal or retroperitoneal incision, unilateral (List separately in addition to code for primary procedure) >CPT code 34820 – Open iliac artery exposure for delivery of endovascular prosthesis or iliac occlusion during endovascular therapy, by abdominal or retroperitoneal incision, unilateral (List separately in addition to code for primary procedure) CPT code 34833 is followed by a CPT Manual instruction that states: “(Do not report 34833 in conjunction with 33364, 33953, 33954, 33959, 33962, 33969, 33984, 34820 when performed on the same side).” Although the CPT code descriptors for 34833 and 34820 describe different procedures, they should not be reported together for the same side. Modifier 59 should not be appended to either code to report the two procedures for the same side of the body. If the two procedures were performed on different sides of the body, they may be reported with modifiers LT and RT as appropriate. Modifier 59 is used inappropriately if the basis for its use is that the narrative description of the two codes is different. ___________________________________________________________________ Example 9: Column 1 Code / Column 2 Code – 97140/97530 >CPT Code 97140 – Manual therapy techniques (eg, mobilization/manipulation, manual lymphatic drainage, manual traction), 1 or more regions, each 15 minutes >CPT Code 97530 – Therapeutic activities, direct (one-on-one) patient contact (use of dynamic activities to improve functional performance), each 15 minutes Modifier 59 may be reported if the two procedures are performed in distinctly different 15 minute time blocks. For example, one service may be performed during the initial 15 minutes of therapy and the other service performed during the second 15 minutes of therapy. Alternatively, the therapy time blocks may be split. For example, manual therapy might be performed for 10 minutes, followed by 15 minutes of therapeutic activities, followed by another 5 minutes of manual therapy. CPT code 97530 should not be reported and modifier 59 should not be used if the two procedures are performed during the same time block.

 

 

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CPT only copyright 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Disclaimer: This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of written law, regulations, manuals, or other CMS guidance. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations, and other interpretive materials including the Internet-Only Manual and the National Correct Coding Initiative Policy Manual for Medicare Services for a full and accurate statement of their contents.

 

Modifier 59 is used appropriately when two timed procedures are performed in different blocks of time on the same day. ______________________________________________________________________ Example 10: Column 1 Code / Column 2 Code – 37220/75710 >CPT Code 37220 – Revascularization, endovascular, open or percutaneous, iliac artery, unilateral, initial vessel; with transluminal angioplasty >CPT Code 75710 – Angiography, extremity, unilateral, radiological supervision and interpretation Modifier 59 may be reported with CPT code 75710 if a diagnostic angiography has not been previously performed and the decision to perform the revascularization is based on the result of the diagnostic angiography. The CPT Manual defines additional circumstances under which diagnostic angiography may be reported with an interventional vascular procedure on the same artery. Modifier 59 is used appropriately for a diagnostic procedure which precedes a therapeutic procedure only when the diagnostic procedure is the basis for performing the therapeutic procedure Critical Thinking Case Study.

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