Culture Class Module: Assignment Family Traditions
Familial Health Traditions
- Read and follow the directions on pages 160 and 161.
- Conduct an interview with an older family member.
- Summarize your findings regarding familial and social changes, and your ethnocultural and religiousheritage. (Include one example)
- Your paper should be:
- One (1) page
- Typed according to APA style for margins, formating and spacing standards
- See NUR3045 – Library (located on left-side on menu) for tutorial Using APA Style
- Typed into a Microsoft Word document, save the file, and then upload the file.
- I ATTACHED THE PDF OF THE BOOK SO YOU CAN LOOK AT PAGE 160 AND 161 WHCIH IS PART OF CHAPTER 7 Culture Class Module: Assignment Family Traditions
Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness
There is something that transcends all of this I am I . . . You are you Yet. I and you Do connect Somehow, sometime.
To understand the “cultural” needs Samenesses and differences of people Needs an open being See—Hear—Feel With no judgment or interpretation Reach out Maybe with that physical touch Or eyes, or aura You exhibit your openness and willingness to Listen and learn And, you tell and share In so doing—you share humanness It is acknowledged and shared Something happens— Mutual understanding
—Rachel E. Spector
Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness
E I G H T H E D I T I O N
Rachel E. Spector, PhD, RN, CTN-A, FAAN Needham, MA 02494
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ISBN-13: 978-0-13-284006-4 ISBN-10: 0-13-284006-5
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Spector, Rachel E. Cultural diversity in health and illness/Rachel E. Spector.—8th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-284006-4 ISBN-10: 0-13-284006-5 1. Transcultural medical care—United States. 2. Health attitudes—United States. 3. Transcultural nursing—United States. I. Title. RA418.5.T73S64 2013 610—dc23 2012012708 Culture Class Module: Assignment Family Traditions
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
I would like to dedicate this text to
My husband, Manny; Sam, Hilary, Julia, and Emma; Becky, Perry, Naomi, Rose, and Miriam; the memory of my parents, Joseph J. and Freda F. Needleman, and my in-laws, Sam and Margaret Spector; and the memory of my beloved mentor, Irving Kenneth Zola.
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR xvii
UNIT I CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS 1
Chapter 1 Building Cultural and Linguistic Competence 3 National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically
Appropriate Services in Health Care 8 Cultural Competence 11 Linguistic Competence 11 Institutional Mandates 12 CULTURALCARE 13
Chapter 2 Cultural Heritage and History 19 Heritage Consistency 20 Acculturation Themes 29 Ethnocultural Life Trajectories 32 Commingling Variables 34 Cultural Conflict 36 Cultural Phenomena Affecting Health 37
Chapter 3 Diversity 43 Census 2010 45 Immigration 48 Poverty 54
Chapter 4 Health and Illness 62 Health 63 Illness 74
UNIT II HEALTH DOMAINS 85
Chapter 5 HEALTH Traditions 89 HEALTH and ILLNESS 91 HEALTH Traditions Model 92 HEALTH Protection 95 Health/HEALTH Care Choices 102
viii ■ Contents
Folk Medicine 104 Health/HEALTH Care Philosophies 108
Chapter 6 HEALING Traditions 120 HEALING 121 Ancient Forms of HEALING 123 Religion and HEALING 124 HEALING and Today’s Beliefs 136 Ancient Rituals Related to the Life Cycle 138
Chapter 7 Familial HEALTH Traditions 158 Familial Health/HEALTH Traditions 160 Consciousness Raising 171
Chapter 8 Health and Illness in Modern Health Care 178 The Health Care Provider’s Culture 179 Health Care Costs 182 Trends in Development of the Health Care System 187 Common Problems in Health Care Delivery 191 Pathways to Health Services 195 Barriers to Health Care 197 Medicine as an Institution of Social Control 199
UNIT III HEALTH AND ILLNESS PANORAMAS 207
Chapter 9 HEALTH and ILLNESS in the American Indian and Alaska Native Population 210 Background 211 Traditional Definitions of HEALTH and ILLNESS 213 Traditional Methods of HEALING 215 Current Health Care Problems 222 The Indian Health Service 228
Chapter 10 HEALTH and ILLNESS in the Asian Populations 238 Background 239 Traditional Definitions of HEALTH and ILLNESS 241 Traditional Methods of HEALTH Maintenance
and Protection 246 Traditional Methods of HEALTH Restoration 247 Current Health Problems 257
Chapter 11 HEALTH and ILLNESS in the Black Population 265 Background 266 Traditional Definitions of HEALTH and ILLNESS 270 Traditional Methods of HEALTH Maintenance Culture Class Module: Assignment Family Traditions
and Protection 271
Contents ■ ix
Traditional Methods of HEALTH Restoration 272 Current Health Problems 279
Chapter 12 HEALTH and ILLNESS in the Hispanic Populations 291 Background 292 Mexicans 294 Puerto Ricans 308
Chapter 13 HEALTH and ILLNESS in the White Populations 323 Background 324 German Americans 326 Italian Americans 330 Polish Americans 334 Health Status of the White Population 339
Chapter 14 CULTURALCOMPETENCE 345 CULTURALCOMPETENCY 351
Appendix A Selected Key Terms Related to Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness 354
Appendix B Calendar: Cultural and Religious Holidays That Change Dates 364
Appendix C Suggested Course Outline 367
Appendix D Suggested Course Activity—Urban Hiking 373
Appendix E Heritage Assessment Tool 376
Appendix F Quick Guide for CULTURALCARE 379
Appendix G Data Resources 381
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Every book, every volume you see here, has a soul. The soul of the person who wrote it and of those who read it and lived and dreamed with it.
—Carlos Ruiz Zafon, The Shadow of the Wind, 2001
In 1977—more than 35 years ago—I prepared the first edition of Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness. Now, as I begin the eighth edition of this book— the sixth revision—I realize that this is an opportunity to reflect on an endeavor that has filled a good deal of my life for the past 30 years. I believe this book has a soul and it, in turn, has become an integral part of my soul. I have lived—through practice, teaching, and research—this material since 1974 and have developed many ways of presenting this content. In addition, I have tracked for 40 years:
1. the United States Census; 2. immigration—numbers and policies; 3. poverty—figures and policies; 4. health care—costs and policies; 5. morbidity and mortality rates; 6. nursing and other health care manpower issues; and 7. the emergence and growth of the concepts of health disparities and
cultural and linguistic competence. Culture Class Module: Assignment Family Traditions
My metaphors are HEALTH, defined as “the balance of the person, both within one’s being—physical, mental, and spiritual—and in the outside world— natural, communal, and metaphysical”; ILLNESS, “the imbalance of the person, both within one’s being—physical, mental, and spiritual—and in the outside world—natural, communal, and metaphysical”; and HEALING, “the restoration of balance, both within one’s being—physical, mental, and spiritual—and in the outside world—natural, communal, and metaphysical.” I have learned over these years that within many traditional heritages (defined as “old,” not con- temporary or modern) people tend to define HEALTH, ILLNESS, and HEALING in this manner. Imagine a kaleidoscope—the tube can represent HEALTH. The ob- jects reflected within the kaleidoscope reflect the traditional tools used to care for a given person’s HEALTH. If you love kaleidoscopes, you know what I am describing and that the patterns that emerge are infinite.
xii ■ Preface
In addition, I have had the unique opportunity to travel to countless places in the United States and abroad. I make it a practice to visit the tra- ditional markets, pharmacies, and shrines and dialogue with the people who work in or patronize the settings, and I have gathered invaluable knowledge and unique items and images. My tourist dollars are invested in amulets and remedies and my collection is large. Digital photography has changed my eyes; I may be a “digital immigrant,” rather than a “digital native,” but the camera has proven to be my most treasured companion. I have been able to use the im- ages of sacred objects and sacred places to create HEALTH Traditions Imagery. The opening images for each chapter and countless images within the chapters are the results of these explorations. Given that there are times when we do not completely understand a concept or an image, several images are slightly blurred or dark to represent this wonderment.
The first edition of this book was the outcome of a promesa—a promise— I once made. The promise was made to a group of Asian, Black, and Hispanic students I taught in a medical sociology course in 1973. In this course, the students wound up being the teachers, and they taught me to see the world of health care delivery through the eyes of the health care consumer rather than through my own well-intentioned eyes. What I came to see I did not al- ways like. I did not realize how much I did not know; I believed I knew a lot. I promised the students that I would take that which they taught me regarding HEALTH and teach it to students and colleagues. I have held on to the promesa, and my experiences over the years have been incredible. I have met people and traveled. At all times I have held on to the idea and goal of attempting to help nurses and other health care providers be aware of and sensitive to the HEALTH, ILLNESS, and HEALING beliefs and needs of their patients. Culture Class Module: Assignment Family Traditions
I know that looking inside closed doors carries with it a risk. I know that people prefer to think that our society is a melting pot and that the traditional beliefs and practices have vanished with the expected acculturation and assimi- lation into mainstream North American modern life. Many people, however, have continued to carry on the traditional customs and culture from their na- tive lands and heritage, and HEALTH, ILLNESS, and HEALING beliefs are deeply entwined within the cultural and social beliefs that people have. To understand HEALTH and ILLNESS beliefs and practices, it is necessary to see each person in his or her unique sociocultural world. The theoretical knowledge that has evolved for the development of this text is cumulative and much of the “old” material is relevant today as many HEALTH, ILLNESS, and HEALING beliefs do not change. However, many beliefs and practices do go underground.
The purpose of each edition has been to increase awareness of the dimen- sions and complexities involved in caring for people from diverse cultural back- grounds. I wished to share my personal experiences and thoughts concerning the introduction of cultural concepts into the education of health care profes- sionals. The books represented my answers to the questions:
■ “How does one effectively expose a student to cultural diversity?” ■ “How does one examine health care issues and perceptions from a
broad social viewpoint?”
Preface ■ xiii
As I have done in the classroom over the years, I attempt to bring you, the reader, into direct contact with the interaction between providers of care within the North American health care system and the consumers of health care. The staggering issues of health care delivery are explored and contrasted with the choices that people may make in attempting to deal with health care issues.
When I began this journey in nursing, there were limited resources avail- able to answer my questions and to support me in my passion for knowledge. The situation has dramatically changed and today there is nearly more informa- tion than one can absorb! Not only is this information being sought by nurses, all stakeholders in the health care industry are struggling with this concept. The de- mographics of America, and the world, have changed and perhaps this challenge of building bridges between cultural groups can be seen as a way to open op- portunities to do this in many disciplines. Indeed, the content is readily available:
■ Countless books and articles have been published in nursing, medicine, public health, and the popular media over the past 40 years that con- tain invaluable information relevant to CULTURALCOMPETENCY.
■ Innumerable workshops and meetings have been available where the content is presented and discussed.
■ “Self-study” programs on the Internet have been developed that pro- vide continuing education credits to nurses, physicians, and other providers.
However, the process of becoming CULTURALLYCOMPETENT is not generally provided for. Issues persist, such as: Culture Class Module: Assignment Family Traditions
■ Demographic disparity exists in the profile of health care providers and in health status.
■ Patient needs, such as modesty, space, and gender-specific care, are not universally met.
■ Religious-specific needs are not met in terms of meal planning, proce- dural planning, conference planning, and so forth.
■ Communication and language barriers exist.
As this knowledge is built, you are on the way to CULTURALCOMPETENCY. As it matures and grows, you become an advocate of CULTURALCARE, as it will be described in Chapter 1.
■ Overview Unit I focuses on the background knowledge one must recognize as the foun- dation for developing CULTURALCOMPETENCY.
■ Chapter 1 presents an overview of the significant content related to the on-going development of the concepts of cultural and linguistic com- petency as it is described by several different organizations.
■ Chapter 2 explores the concept of cultural heritage and history and the roles they play in one’s perception of health and illness. This exploration
xiv ■ Preface
is first outlined in general terms: What is culture? How is it transmit- ted? What is ethnicity? What is religion? How do they affect a person’s health? What major sociocultural events occurred during the life trajec- tory of a person that may influence his or her personal health beliefs and practices?
■ Chapter 3 presents a discussion of the diversity—demographic, im- migration, and poverty—that impacts on the delivery of and access to health care. The backgrounds of each of the U.S. Census Bureau’s cat- egories of the population, an overview of immigration, and an overview of issues relevant to poverty are presented.
■ Chapter 4 reviews the provider’s knowledge of his or her own percep- tions, needs, and understanding of health and illness.
Unit II explores the domains of HEALTH, blends them with one’s personal heritage, and contrasts them with the Allopathic Philosophy.
■ Chapter 5 introduces the concept of HEALTH and develops the con- cept in broad and general terms. The HEALTH Traditions Model is pre- sented, as are natural methods of HEALTH maintenance and protection.
■ Chapter 6 explores the concept of HEALTH restoration or HEALING and the role that faith plays in the context of HEALING, or magico-religious, traditions. This is an increasingly important issue, which is evolving to a point where the health care provider must have some understanding of this phenomenon.
■ Chapter 7 discusses family heritage and explores personal and familial HEALTH traditions. It includes an array of familial health/HEALTH be- liefs and practices shared by people from many different heritages.
■ Chapter 8 focuses on the health care provider culture and the allopathic health care delivery system.
Once the study of each of these components has been completed, Unit III (Chapters 9 to 13) moves on to explore selected population groups in more de- tail, to portray a panorama of traditional HEALTH and ILLNESS beliefs and prac- tices, and to present relevant health care issues. Culture Class Module: Assignment Family Traditions
Chapter 14 is devoted to an overall analysis of the book’s contents and how best to apply this knowledge in health care delivery, health planning, and health education, for both the patient and the health care professional.
Each chapter in the text opens with images relevant to the chapter’s topic. They may be viewed in the CULTURALCARE Museum on the accompanying web page.
These pages cannot do full justice to the richness of any one culture or any one health/HEALTH belief system. By presenting some of the beliefs and practices and suggesting background reading, however, the book can begin to inform and sensitize the reader to the needs of a given group of people. It can also serve as a model for developing cultural knowledge of populations that are not included in this text.
There is so much to be learned. Countless books and articles have now appeared that address these problems and issues. It is not easy to alter attitudes
Preface ■ xv
and beliefs or stereotypes and prejudices, to change a person’s philosophy. Some social psychologists state that it is almost impossible to lose all of one’s prejudices, yet alterations can be made. I believe the health care provider must develop the ability to deliver CULTURALCARE and knowledge regarding per- sonal fundamental values regarding health/HEALTH and illness/ILLNESS. With acceptance of one’s own values come the framework and courage to accept the existence of differing values. This process of realization and acceptance can enable the health care provider to be instrumental in meeting the needs of the consumer in a collaborative, safe, and professional manner.
This book is written primarily for the student in basic allied health profes- sional programs, nursing, medical, social work, and other health care provider disciplines. I believe it will be helpful also for providers in all areas of practice, especially community health, long-term oncology, chronic care settings, and geri- atric and hospice centers. I am attempting to write in a direct manner and to use language that is understandable by all. The material is sensitive, yet I believe that it is presented in a sensitive manner. At no point is my intent to create a vehicle for stereotyping. I know that one person will read this book and nod, “Yes, this is how I see it,” and someone else of the same background will say, “No, this is not correct.” This is the way it is meant to be. It is incomplete by intent. It is written in the spirit of open inquiry, so that an issue may be raised and so that clarifica- tion of any given point will be sought from the patient as health care is provided. The deeper I travel into this world of cultural diversity, the more I wonder at the variety. It is wonderfully exciting. By gaining insight into the traditional attitudes that people have toward health and health care, I found my own nursing practice was enhanced, and I was better able to understand the needs of patients and their families. It is thrilling to be able to meet, to know, and to provide care to people from all over the world and every walk of life. It is the excitement of nursing. As we go forward in time, I hope that these words will help you, the reader, develop CULTURALCARE skills and help you provide the best care to all Culture Class Module: Assignment Family Traditions.