Enzymes in Biotechnology Assignment
Taq polymerase is selected for its use in biotechnology due to its heat tolerance; hence it is possible to withstand high temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius that cause denaturation of proteins. The enzyme has also shown high specificity in the selection of DNA strands and bases. The following conditions are used for selecting enzymes to be used in biotechnology.
Ability to withstand extreme pHs (Alkaline).
Microbial proteases are an example of enzymes that optimally carry out hydrolysis under high pH. These alkaline proteases are also able to work under high temperatures and in the presence of inhibitory compounds (Nigam, 2013). Proteases are used in bio-industries that include washing powders, food industry, and pharmaceuticals. Enzymes in Biotechnology Assignment
Ability to withstand extreme pHs(Acidophilic).
Xylanases are both alkaline and acidophilic. They are used in paper processing as they selectively solubilize xylans to ensure that papers are bright. These enzymes are also heat-tolerant even at temperatures of 65 degrees Celsius.
Enhanced stability of enzymes is crucial in biotechnology as it enables the production of various products under varying conditions of pH, temperature, and availability of inhibitory compounds (Nigam, 2013). Keratinase is a proteolytic enzyme that is used to degrade keratins in textile processing, leather manufacturing, and medicine.
Xylanases are also used due to the selectivity towards xylans. They do dissolve cellulose since it might affect the paper’s quality (Nigam, 2013). Selectivity is also crucial as it utilized when indicating the amount of substances using markers.
The use of an enzyme is not only based on one environment but two or three for efficiency in research and industrial production. Scientists are researching the probability of genetically modifying these enzymes to improve their effectiveness by applying recombinant gene technology
Nigam, P. S. (2013, August 23). Microbial Enzymes with Special Characteristics
for Biotechnological Applications. Biomolecules, 3(3), 597–611. Enzymes in Biotechnology Assignment
Also check: Assignment: Assessing The Genitalia And Rectum