Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay

Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay

Summary of the Article

In the article “Coronaviruses: Symptoms, treatments, and variants,” Adam Felman describes the signs and symptoms of the new pandemic that has affected the whole world. Felman (2020) suggests that coronavirus is a disease that affects the respiratory tract of not only birds but also mammals such as humans. Coronavirus is mostly associated with causing a cold, but can also be related to severe illnesses. For at least 80 years, scientists have studied the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and how it affects humans. In the article, Felman (2020) notes that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for coronavirus. The first individuals to contracts coronavirus were found to have links to animals, which shows that the virus was transmitted from animals to humans. Once transmitted, humans began developing various symptoms such as fever, shortness of breath, headache, sore throat, running nose, chills, and muscle pain. No vaccine has been found yet, but scientists have replicated the virus, which gives hope of early detection of the virus in people who have it but have not developed any signs or symptoms. Felman (2020) notes that people at least 65 years of age and those with underlying medical issues are vulnerable to coronavirus. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay


The Relationship among Causal Agents, Susceptible Persons, and Environmental Factors (epidemiological triangle)

The outbreak of disease highly depends on the epidemiological triad. It is made up of three components, which include the agent, host, and environment. When attempting to understand an outbreak of infectious or contagious disease, researchers use the epidemiological triad to identify the relationship between the three components, which helps prevent the spread of the disease. Covid-19 is one of the worst pandemics to affect humanity, one that was transferred from the previous host, an animal, to the current host, the humans, and seems to be thriving in humans. An agent may be a virus, fungi, bacteria, parasite, or mold (Niedbalski, 2018). In COVID-19, the agent is a virus that affects the respiratory system and is referred to as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). For the SARS-CoV-2 agent to be effective, it must interact with a host. A host is anything or anyone that grants not only subsistence, but also lodging to a pathogen and may either develop or fail to develop a disease. In humans, the immunity level plays a critical role in determining whether they contract a disease. For COVID-19, the primary host is the human who harbors the pathogen and develops the disease. Being a new outbreak, not much is known concerning COVID-19. However, researchers have identified that some people can host the SARS-CoV-2 virus and not develop COVID-19, whereas others, the majority of the group, contract COVID-19 once the agent gets to them. The environment is the third component of the triad and describes any extrinsic factors that have an impact on the agent. The surroundings of a pathogen and its lives are part of the environment (Tsui et al., 2020). As such, an environment can either be in a host or outside the host. Covid-19’s environment includes respiratory droplets as well as any other contaminated surfaces. The spread of the novel coronavirus has been due to the interaction of the agent and susceptible hosts, which has been made possible by the environment. Coughing, sneezing, and spitting are the main reasons behind the spread of the disease since the SARS-CoV-2 virus moves from one host to another either directly or through a contaminated surface. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay

Role of Nurses in Addressing the Outbreak

Nurses play a pivotal role in the healthcare system. These are the individuals on the front line during the day and night, offering their services to the patients. Whenever there is an outbreak, nurses are the professionals that step up in an attempt to deal with the pandemic and mitigate it from spreading or causing more damage. Nurses step up with the primary intention of saving a life, which has been their significant role during the coronavirus pandemic. Notably, coronavirus has been identified as a life-threatening disease that has claimed a lot of life and continues to claim more lives. Being an infectious disease, it is easy to contract it, and yet the nurses have stepped up and geared up with the necessary equipment to protect them and, at the same time, fight the disease. With no vaccine at the moment, those who have contracted the novel coronavirus are being quarantined in various health facilities where the nurses are continually taking care of them. Unlike other diseases where family and friends are allowed to visit the patient, with the coronavirus, people are prohibited to prevent them from contracting the same disease. Resnick (2020) remarks that this has made the role of nurses more vital since they spend most of their time with their patients, reassuring them that everything is going to be alright and sharing with them the love they would otherwise have received from their friends and families.

Caught up in the center of the whole pandemic, nurses help identify the signs and symptoms of the disease, providing relevant feedback concerning what works and what does not work. Being a new outbreak, a lot is unknown about the disease. As researchers are in the labs studying the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the nurses are in the health facilities, attending to their patients where they can observe the behavior of their patients. Their feedbacks have so far helped caution individuals concerning the emerging signs and symptoms of coronavirus, as noted by Pragholapati (2020). In administering medication, the nurses have been observing how some of the medication helps patients get better, information that is relevant in the fight against the unseen enemy that has claimed more than a million lives globally. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay


Nurses have also been in charge of spreading knowledge to create awareness concerning coronavirus. Notably, nurses have relevant experience and skills in interacting with patients and their families. This experience has so far helped the fight against coronavirus since nurses have been spreading awareness concerning the signs, symptoms, and prevention measures that are useful in preventing the spread of the disease. Nurses all over the world have stressed on the importance of sanitizing, wearing masks, and social distancing to the people (Resnick, 2020). Although the disease has continued to spread, the results would have been more adverse without the help of the nurses.

Possible Health Promotion Strategies that could have been Implemented by Nurses to Mitigate the Outbreak

Nurses have been crucial in the fight against coronavirus since it began. Being a new outbreak with little information known about it, there is not much that the nurses could have done to prevent the spread of the disease. The only role they could have played as a protection strategy was to provide people with sanitizers and masks. Another role they could have played was mass testing, when the disease began, which should have been carried out anywhere, including homes. Other than these strategies, the nurses have risked their lives to save the lives of their patients. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay


Felman, A. (2020, July 17). Coronaviruses: Symptoms, treatments, and variants. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/256521.

Niedbalski, W. I. E. S. Ł. A. W. (2018). BTV-vector-host interaction: the epidemiological triangle in disease transmission. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 74(11).

Pragholapati, A. (2020). Self-Efficacy Of Nurses During The Pandemic Covid-19.

Resnick, B. (2020). What Have We Learned About Nursing From the Coronavirus Pandemic?. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 21(7), 997-998.

Tsui, B. C., Deng, A., & Pan, S. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019: Epidemiological Factors During Aerosol-Generating Medical Procedures. Anesthesia and Analgesia. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay

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