HIV Pandemic Assignment Paper

HIV Pandemic Assignment Paper

Introduction

A virus is a nucleic acid molecule covered by a protein layer and mimics a living organism when it has the environment that enables this capacity, such as a cell. Therefore, without the cell acting as a host, a virus cannot exist on its own for an extended period or mimic qualities of life. A virus is smaller than a cell and cannot be viewed by a regular light microscope. Once it has found a host, a living organism, it becomes destructive because it has infectious properties that weaken the immune system. A virus can infect all living organisms, including all animals, plants, bacteria, Achaea, and other types of microorganisms. There are millions of viruses on the planet, but only six thousand have been researched in detail.

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Independent viruses exist in the form of a single particle. Only after they find a host force the cell’s mechanisms to replicate it into numerous copies, thereby spreading in the body. The virus is made up of genetic material, DNA, and RNA, enabling it to mimic life qualities. The genetic material forms the structure of the virus and is enclosed by a protein layer. As determined by its genetic profile, the virus’s structure ranges from simple helical shapes to more intricate designs. For example, HIV is circular in structure and contains single strands of RNA instead of the double-strand DNA present in human cells HIV Pandemic Assignment Paper.

Some theories suggest that some types of viruses originate from plasmids and others from bacteria evolution, being the common factor between the two origins. The transition into viruses is horizontal gene movement, which is cell to cell gene transfer. This type of gene transfer is analogous to normal reproduction because a new virus is created for the same function in different mannerisms. For instance, the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a horizontal mutation of the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) originating from animals. The closest match is from a chimpanzee, which was hunted during the 1920s and eaten by people as a form of exotic meat.

The human immunodeficiency virus is not new in the world. It has existed for a long time, often causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in human beings. The virus originated from Congo, where the strain mutated and transferred from an animal into a human being. This was determined in 1920 when the virus became a global pandemic when the SIV was the closest match. The new strain was able to crossover to humans due to a combination of two types of the same virus combining from different infections. This illustrates the fact that viruses evolve as a system of reproducing better strands HIV Pandemic Assignment Paper.

Causes

The virus is an immune system disease that originated from SIV, also known as simian immunodeficiency virus. Engaging in sexual intercourse with another person without protection will result in a person contracting the virus, making them HIV positive. The virus is contained in the fluids that are ejaculated during intercourse with an infected person, so it is advisable to use the recommended precautions if the interaction must occur between two adults. When a healthy person is exposed to the virus, it takes them three months to know if they contracted it or not. Research states that the virus cannot be cured, and a person has to live with it until they die because of opportunistic illnesses brought about by a weak immune system. After people contracted the virus from the chimpanzee, human infections mutated the virus to the strain we are familiar with at the present date (Olabode, 2019). Apart from the scientific explanation of the origin of the virus, people have conflicting views on where the virus originated, depending on where the outbreak had the most impact.

HIV was spread through the intricate transport networks built by colonialists who included roads, rail, and waterways. Traders used these channels for the profitable sex trade during the period, which is how the disease spread across the world. Places connected by the infrastructure were the most impacted than those that were cut off from the development. In the early 1980s, more than half of the infected people lived outside Kinshasa, the origin, which was an indicator of the fast-spreading pandemic. During the 1960s, Haiti colonial workers went back to their country with the new strain of the virus, which became a global pandemic affecting over seventy-five million people globally by 2014. The Haitian people were stigmatized because people thought they were the origin of the virus. Another country that faced discrimination was the united stated, where people became aware of the incurable virus in the early 1980s. However, the bias was not targeted at them directly, but rather the segregated group referred to as the four H deemed as risks HIV Pandemic Assignment Paper.

Symptoms

During incubation, which is the time between when an individual contracts the virus to when they start showing symptoms, a person has no apparent signs that they have contracted the virus. It is difficult to ascertain that a person has HIV; therefore, most people are not worried for the next three months. As time passes, the symptoms progress to a level where a person experiences common colds, so most people are not aware at this point. It is advisable to get tested at this stage to take the necessary precautions to help curb the virus’s spread to their loved ones. The proceeding symptoms include heavy fevers, occasional migraines, rashes, diarrhea, and a sore throat, easy to ignore and get over the counter medicine. Researchers have observed that people do not follow up on their health condition after having unprotected sex. This is the first stage of HIV, meaning that these symptoms will progress over time.

When an individual has been infected for over ten weeks their cross over to the late stages of the infection, where the symptoms become more life-threatening if proper care is not sought out; at this stage, the virus has the person irreparable damage to a person’s immune system, meaning their body cannot defend them against common illness effectively. The weak immune system makes minor illnesses like the flu fatal to a person by threatening their life (Chin, 2018). Some of the late-stage symptoms include extreme loss of weight caused by the loss of appetite stemming from persistent diarrhea after eating. Subsequently, a person can have skin cancer, especially if they have prolonged exposure to the elements and meningitis. All the above are opportunistic illnesses that a healthy person can get rid of with little to no medical aid. All the symptoms mentioned above are from other diseases; therefore, it is impossible to be sure that they have the virus unless they get tested.

Prevention

There is no known cure for HIV; therefore, the only possible way to mitigate the virus is by implementing preventative measures to avoid the infection altogether. The apparent prevention method is abstinence, which means avoiding sexual intercourse; by all means, this drops a person’s risk of exposure completely. The drawback to this method is that sexual intercourse has become a norm globally, and people need to agree with this fact. It is no secret that even teenagers are participating in sexual acts at their tender age. This is why governments need to sensitize their entire populations on the importance of safe sex to curb the spread of the virus in their countries. Additionally, there are methods of living with the virus when it is contracted by ARV. The public should utilize precaution and preventative measures without fault for their own sake and their families.

The majority of the world is familiar with the common methods of preventing HIV because they are standard globally. The methods include ensuring that sexual partners practice condoms, which can be for both males and females (Ford, 2018). People should avoid having multiple sexual partners as this is the fastest way to contract or spread the virus in their region. Additionally, male circumcision has been found to reduce infection risk from a woman by more than half. Getting tested as partners will inform them both and advise them on how they can protect each other by practicing safe sex. A mother can also infect her unborn child unless they follow the directives of her physician.

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Conclusion

A virus has the same structure as the cell of an organism with variations depending on its genome, which is the RNA in HIV. Each virus infects a particular area of the organism, effectively weakening their immune system and depending on the strain and the organism’s health, leading to its demise. Viruses evolved from plasmids or bacteria in reproduction, making the new generation of evolution better than the previous version. There are many viruses, but HIV is one of the prevalent ones that have caught the world’s attention because of causing a global pandemic. Viruses are inactive when they exist, but rapidly replicate themselves while imitating most of the qualities of life. The virus was discovered in the Congo, where the pandemic erupted and spread worldwide due to the intricate travel network. The lack of knowledge of the virus then and rampant sex trade led to the spread of the virus globally.

The cause of the virus was SIV, which is believed to have been passed on from chimpanzees to human beings. Specifically, the strain of the virus originates from a set of smaller monkeys eaten by the chimpanzees, which was then combined with the SIV strain they had, making it transferable to human beings. There are vital symptoms a person can remain vigilant for, but they imitate those of a common illness with different levels of severity. This means even if a person is confident they have a cold, they should take necessary precautions to ensure they have not contracted the virus. There are measures to control the effects of HIV that can enable people to curb the virus’s spread. The best way to mitigate a virus infection is by boosting the immune system, which most medications are designed to accomplish.  Before a viral virus can be contained, it can become a pandemic on different scales depending on its spread and how fast governments react to contain it before it spreads HIV Pandemic Assignment Paper.

References

Chin, Y. M., & Wilson, N. (2018). Disease risk and fertility: evidence from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Journal of Population Economics31(2), 429-451.

Ford, N., Meintjes, G., Calmy, A., Bygrave, H., Migone, C., Vitoria, M., … & Doherty, M. (2018). Managing advanced HIV disease in a public health approach. Clinical Infectious Diseases66(suppl_2), S106-SS110.

Olabode, A. S., Avino, M., Ng, G. T., Abu-Sardanah, F., Dick, D. W., & Poon, A. F. (2019). Evidence for a recombinant origin of HIV-1 Group M from genomic variation. Virus evolution5(1), vey039 HIV Pandemic Assignment Paper.

 

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