Left Sided Heart Failure Concept Map

Left Sided Heart Failure Concept Map

Assessment 1 – Concept map and guided questions.

Information 1 – Getting started.

Your first assessment is generating a concept map for left heart failure and answering three questions related to a case study about a patient who has an acute exacerbation of heart failure. When preparing your assignment refer to the criteria and standards in the Learning Guide. Left Sided Heart Failure Concept Map

You can begin this assessment now by finding readings about heart failure and summarising the information under the headings of the pathophysiology template. This information can then be used for your concept map.

Some readings that you may find helpful to start your assignment are:

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Your textbook:

Craft,J.A., Gordon,C.J., Huether,S.E., McCance, K.L., Brashers, V.L. & Rote,N.E.

(2015). Understanding pathophysiology – ANZ adaptation (2nd ed.).

Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia. Chapter 23.

Also:

Aitken, L., Marshall,A. & Chaboyer, W. (2015). ACCCN’s critical care nursing

(3rd ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia. Chapter 10.

Wagner, K.D. (2014). High acuity nursing (6th ed.). Upper Saddler River, New

Jersey: Pearson. Chapter13.

(These books are available online from the Western Sydney University library).

This is just to begin. You will then find more readings to add to your information.

Remember that the information in your concept map and answers to the questions must correlate with the references that you cite so keep an accurate record when preparing your assignment. The marker of your assessment will check your citations. Left Sided Heart Failure Concept Map

An example of a pathophysiology template for a left-sided ischaemic stroke and a concept map using this information has been attached to start you thinking about how you will approach your assignment. The concept map has been generated using Word. However, if you wish, you may prefer to use a concept map template that you may find on the web.

influences

Aetiology

Depletion of blood flow in a cerebral artery resulting from a thrombus or embolus. (1)

Pathogenesis

Occlusion of cerebral artery production of ATP failure of energy pumps influx of sodium and calcium ions and efflux of potassium passive inflow of water cytotoxic oedema destruction of cells in infarct core.

Membrane depolarisation release of glutamate excessive calcium influx into neurons destruction of cells by lipolysis, proteolysis and free radicals.

infarct core and ischaemic penumbra

necrotic tissue not able to conduct impulses interrupting normal function such as motor and sensory transmission and speech. Left Sided Heart Failure Concept Map

Risk factors

· Obesity

· Smoking

· Sedentary lifestyle

· Age 1.

· ageg

Clinical features

· Right-sided hemiplegia and weakness

· Sensory loss on right side

· Inability to see the right visual field of each eye

· Aphasia

· Apraxia

· Dysarthria

· Impaired reasoning

· Behavioural changes

· Problems with memory

 

Diagnosis

· Complete history

· Physical and neurological examination

· Brain MRI or CT scan –differentiate cerebral haemorrhage from ischaemic stroke

· Other tests for vascular imaging – CT angiography, magnetic resonance angiography

Primary prevention

· Don’t smoke

· Diet high in fruit and vegetables

· Diet low in fats and salt

· 30 minutes of exercise daily

· Limit alcohol

1,7

Treatment

Medical

· Reperfusion Thrombolytic (tPA )

Nursing acute phase

· Frequent evaluation of neurological status and vital signs

· Oxygen saturations – administer oxygen if required

· Screen for swallowing – manage hydration and nutrition

· Manage activities of daily living

· Address appropriate communication strategies

· Prevent complications

Rehabilitation

· Passive and active movement

· Encourage activities provided by physiotherapists, speech and occupational therapists e.g. mobility, speech, ADL

· Education-

Secondary prevention

· Neuroprotection – e.g, aspirin

Course of disease

With reperfusion – blood restored to area, many symptoms gradually resolve

Without treatment – ischaemia extends to penumbra –symptoms worsen. Recovery may continue 6 months to a year but left with disability. Requires rehabilitation to optimise function 8

Complications

· Contractures

· Incontinence

· Falls

· Mood disturbances

· Dysarthria and aphasia

·

·

Death of brain tissue resulting from an occluded cerebral artery in the left side of the brain.. 6.

Prognosis

One in five likely to die within one month.

Of those who recover about 90% will experience some impairment. 9

causes

Atherosclerosis

Prevents formation of

 

 

4,7

6,7

 

5

1,2,4

1,2,3

Leads to need for immediate

diagnoses

Diagnosed by

Results in Left Sided Heart Failure Concept Map

Also check: General Awareness And Attitudes Scale