Nursing Nutrition In Health And Disease
Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight. People with anorexia place a high value on controlling their weight and shape, using extreme efforts that tend to significantly interfere with their lives (Anorexia Nervosa Mayo Clinic, 2018). As a nurse some signs and symptoms to look out for this disorder include excessively skinny or malnourished patient appearance. Also apprehension to food or eating could also be a sign to look out for. These patients many times have a fear for obesity, they feel fat even when they are sickly thin. These patients can also experience amenorrhea. Nursing Nutrition In Health And Disease However, restoring a person to normal weight or temporarily ending the binge-purge cycle does not address the underlying emotional problems that cause or are made worse by the abnormal eating behavior. Psychotherapy helps individuals with eating disorders to understand the thoughts, emotions and behaviors that trigger these disorders. In addition, some medications have also proven to be effective in the treatment process.
Due to the serious physical problems caused by these illnesses, it is important that any treatment plan for a person with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder include general medical care, nutritional management and nutritional counseling. These measures begin to rebuild physical well-being and healthy eating practices (Parekh, 2017). In many medical conditions it is important to always treat the underlying cause. This illness has a lot to do with mental health. If the patients mental health is not addressed the patient can revert back to this illness. Once the patients mental health has been addressed then it would be important to begin to assess and treat nutitional status of the patient but also always keeping in mind the patients mental state and making sure that the patient is referred to the proper physicians and specialties for follow up. Resources are important for these types of patients Nursing Nutrition In Health And Disease.
Anorexia nervosa. (2018, February 20). Retrieved December 02, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anorexia-nervosa/symptoms-causes/syc-20353591?utm_source=Google
(n.d.). Retrieved December 02, 2020, from https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/eating-disorders/what-are-eating-disorders
RE: Discussion Prompt 1
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Pica is an eating disorder where a person eats items that are not thought of as food and have no nutritional value. The most common items are dirt, clay, and flaking paint. Less common items are glue, hair, cigarette ashes, and feces (familydoctor.org). This disorder is more common in children between ages 1 and 6 and affects 10-30% in children of this age group (familydoctor.org). However, it can also happen in children and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Because there are no lab tests to diagnose Pica, this disorder is diagnosed made from a clinical history of the patient. But because the ingestion of non-food items can be harmful to the body, testing for anemia, potential intestinal blockages, and toxic side effects of substances should accompany the diagnose of Pica. Signs and symptoms the nurse should expect to see are upset stomach, stomach pain, blood in the stool, and bowel problems. Warning signs and symptoms include persistent eating of substances that are not food over a period of at least one month and some risk factors are mental health disorders associated with impaired functioning and iron-deficiency and malnutrition are two of the most common because it is a sign the body is trying to correct a nutrition deficiency. Treatment for Pica includes testing for nutrient deficiencies and correcting them. It will also address several areas affected from having eaten non-food items such as diarrhea, ulcers, intestinal tear, infection, or any combination of illnesses. In many cases these eating behaviors disappear once the deficiencies are corrected. However, if they continue after nutritional treatment, behavioral interventions are available. Home environment, parent education, and referral to a behavioral and/or mental specialist is also part of treatment.
Pica. (2018). Retrieved December 02, 2020, from https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/learn/by-eating-disorder/other/pica
What is Pica? (2020). Retrieved December 02, 2020, from https://familydoctor.org/condition/pica/#:~:text=Pica%20is%20a%20compulsive%20eating,children%20ages%201%20to%206. Nursing Nutrition In Health And Disease
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RE: Discussion Prompt 2
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According to the American College of Gastroenterology enteral nutrition is the form of feeding that uses the gastrointestinal tract to transport some or all of a person’s caloric requirements (American College of Gastroenterology, 2020). “Enteral nutrition can be given by mouth or through a tube, this form of nutrition is used when patients are not able to eat enough food either because they have a lack of energy or an illness, for example, strokes, neurological conditions, blockages of the gut or stomach, and after radiotherapy to the throat or gullet ” (Bapen, 2020). Some nursing interventions that need to be monitored are blood glucose and oral intake of nutrients. Some complications that can occur with enteral nutrition are “aspiration, tube malpositioning or dislodgement, and fluid imbalance” ( My American Nurse, 2020).
According to the American College of Gastroenterology “Parental nutrition refers to the delivery of calories and nutrients into a vein” ( American College of Gastroenterology, 2020). This method is used if the patient’s gut is not able to absorb nutrients. Reasons a patient may need parental nutrition is ” blockage of the gut, perforations of the gut, removal of the gut, and when parts of the bowel are diseased” (Bapen, 2020). Some nursing interventions that need to be monitored are daily weight and I & Os. Some complications with parenteral nutrition are ” dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, thrombosis, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, infection, liver failure, and micronutrient deficiencies” ( My American Nurse, 2020)Nursing Nutrition In Health And Disease.
Enteral feeding: Indications, complications, and nursing care. (2020, July 23). Retrieved December 01,
2020, from https://www.myamericannurse.com/enteral-feeding-indications-complications-and-
Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition. (n.d.). Retrieved December 01, 2020, from https://gi.org/topics/enteral-
Home. (n.d.). Retrieved December 01, 2020, from https://www.bapen.org.uk/nutrition-
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Enteral nutrition refers to a mode of feeding that uses the gastrointestinal tract to deliver a portion or all the nutritional requirements of a person. Enteral nutrition is used among patients with prolonged anorexia, severe malnutrition, coma patients, and patients experiencing head, neck, or spinal injury who are unable to take oral feedings (Thomas, David R., et al., n.d.). The associated complications are attributed to enteral nutrition are malabsorption, aspiration as well as clogging. It is associated with some complications which include air embolism, fluid overload, hyperglycemia, and pneumothorax. Additionally, enteral nutrition could also lead to dislodgement of feeding tubes and fluid imbalance. While parenteral nutrition is defined as a feeding method that delivers required calories and essential nutrients into a vein. The essentials administered include fats, carbs, vitamins, protein as well as minerals. Parenteral is used when patients experience GI tracts that are severely damaged to so subsequent injuries. Such injuries include Bowel obstruction, GI Fistulas, server acute Pancreatitis, and chronically III related patients. Parenteral nutrition could also lead to an increased heartbeat, difficulty when breathing, and fast weight gain or loss. Therefore, learning the implications of both methods enables nurses to ensure safe feeding through the feeding tubes and prevents complications (Kreymann, 2006).
Kreymann, K. G., M. M. Berger, NEP ea Deutz, M. Hiesmayr, P. Jolliet, G. Kazandjiev, G. Nitenberg et al. (2006) “ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition: intensive care.” Clinical nutrition 25, no. 2: 210-223.
Thomas, David R., et al. “Enteral Tube Nutrition – Nutritional Disorders.” Merck Manuals Professional Edition, Merck Manuals, www.merckmanuals.com/professional/nutritional- disorders/nutritional-support/enteral-tube-nutrition.
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You must use an outside scholarly resource in addition to your text or ATI book when formulating the posts. All information from any source must be cited in APA format!! If you take information from a source without giving credit that is considered plagiarism. I am attaching an APA resource to help you format your resources.
Please contact me with any questions or concerns regarding about the discussion.
Example of an initial post
Sarah’s attitude is not appropriate towards supplements. Supplements to help people meet their nutritional requirements, but it is still important to eat foods that will offer nutrients for her and the baby. They should not be taken instead of eating the foods that are recommended. Since she is pregnant, her caloric needs have increased. If she were to meet those caloric requirements, it will increase the absorption and efficiency of the supplements that she takes (Dudek, 2018). Supplements do not have any calories and will not contribute to the 2400 calories that she needs (Dudek, 2018)Nursing Nutrition In Health And Disease. It is good that she is taking supplements, but she needs to try and consume healthy foods that will not agitate her heartburn
I would inform Sarah that her weight gain is within the normal range. With her BMI, her total pregnancy weight gain should be between 25-35 pounds (Dudek, 2018). I would tell Sarah that she should start eating healthy now, and incorporate foods that offer a high nutritional value to continue that habit after pregnancy. In order for her to lose weight, she should implement weight loss strategies in the early postpartum period in order for it to be the most effective (Dudek, 2018). She should start slowly and include exercise into her weight loss plan (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Breast feeding burns many calories and can aid with the reduction of weight after giving birth because it uses the fat that was stored during pregnancy to produce the milk to feed the baby (Mayo Clinic, 2018). If she is breastfeeding, she should remember that it is important to drink a lot of water especially if she is exercising to reduce the risk of dehydration. If she is having trouble finding ways to exercise because she has two younger children as well, she could join a group for mom’s for exercising (Mayo Clinic, 2018)Nursing Nutrition In Health And Disease. There are several ways that she can regain her healthy weight, and it all starts with her willingness to improve and a healthy and balanced diet.
Dudek, S. (2018). Nutrition essentials for nursing (Eighth ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.
Mayo Clinic. (2018, July 13). How to get back in your pre-pregnancy jeans. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/labor-and-delivery/in-depth/weight-loss-after-pregnancy/art-20047813 Nursing Nutrition In Health And Disease
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