Occupational therapy, health and medicine homework

Occupational therapy, health and medicine homework


Review the WHO prerequisites of health: peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, social justice, and equity. Select the prerequisite that most closely aligns with social issues you are concerned about ( use homelessness) Reflect on homelessness from the perspective of belonging. How might barriers to belonging arise from or cause homelessness? How might actions to enhance belonging help to address homelessness? Present evidence to support your assumptions/claims. Use at least 4 peer reviewed, journal articles no more then 5 years old to back up your assumptions/claims. APA format. At least 6 pages. Occupational therapy, health and medicine homework


People are referred to as Human Beings The word being is very often used alongside occupational roles, for example: being parents, being students, being breadwinners, being professional in a specific profession, being artistic, creative, etc. In that way, being refers to the qualities that constitute living, as well as to essential nature of a person: spirit, psyche, and inner persona Being enables people to plan, dream, create, and so forth…  Throughout history, starting with Aristotle to our modern times, there are many theories and point of view what being is or what it means: ▪ Aristotle: the true essence of any object is independent of its material form ▪ Hegel: stripped of all relationships with other object and actions – being does not exist ▪ Maslow: contemplation and enjoyment of the inner life ▪ See Ch. 7 for more examples  Throughout history, starting with Aristotle to our modern times, there are many theories and point of view what being is or what it means: ▪ Aristotle: the true essence of any object is independent of its material form ▪ Hegel: stripped of all relationships with other object and actions – being does not exist ▪ Maslow: contemplation and enjoyment of the inner life ▪ See Ch. 7 for more examples  The different aspects of the doing to being continuum includes the need for: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Satisfaction Meaning Fulfillment and purpose Having choice Finding pleasure Finding balance Finding opportunity Being challenged Being committed Being free Being creative Being able to cope   Just as active and rest occupations are part of continuum, so to are doing and being Being is also reflective aspect of occupation and a chance for time out: ▪ Time for rest, recuperation, stillness ▪ Time for being acutely conscious of thoughts and feelings ▪ Time for contemplation and enjoyment of inner life (Maslow – mentioned earlier) ▪ Being is closely related and aligned with consciousness that refers to the relationship between the mind and the world with which it interacts  Consciousness: ▪ It is a state of feeling aware of external and internal factors ▪ It is also defined as subjectivity, awareness, the ability to experience, the ability to feel, wakefulness, having sense of selfhood, and more… ▪ Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness ▪ As of yet there is no real definition (understanding) of consciousness, how does it form? How does it emerges?  Consciousness and occupations are integrated process: ▪ Complex occupational behavior would be impossible without consciousness and the types of occupations in which individual choose to engage can affect the states of consciousness ▪ Csikszentmihalyi stated that consciousness frees the organism from its dependence on the forces that created it and provides a certain control over our behavior  Exercise: Does consciousness ensures humans’ survival? Is “Yes” how? If “No” why?   Consciousness allows humankind enormous independence and power, with the potential to destroy the environment from which they evolved and on which they depend However, because it acts a prompt to consider the consequences of doing, consciousness is pivotal in the balancing act between doing and being, and between occupation, health, and illness  Transpersonal psychology:Occupational therapy, health and medicine homework ▪ Optimal state of consciousness is central in the achievement of positive health ▪ Deep states of relaxation increases inner awareness ▪ Transpersonal psychology links psychological and physiological states (mostly practiced in Eastern cultures)  Raising consciousness about the relationship between occupation and health is an important aspect of holistic health and well-being  Natural Health prerequisites: ▪ Being and Peace: ▪ Peace is an essential part of being. It could be described as a sense of quiet that reflects calm, serene, and meditative approaches to family or group relationship; avoidance of conflict, or tension/distress ▪ There is a belief that peace is an enlightened state of consciousness and can be cultivated by prayer and/or meditation, and coming to know one’s inner nature ▪ Being and Shelter: ▪ Feeling safe is an essential aspect of being ▪ Throughout the human history homes have been constructed to meet the way people feel and think, as well as provide physical shelter ▪ There are many homeless people in the world today ▪ Being homeless means more than a lack of shelter; person without home is also deprived of simple rituals that link us with sequences of the day and patterns of time  Being and Education: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ UNESCO has described learning to be as one of the pillars of education throughout the lifespan Learning is a lifelong process Learning can be either advantageous or disadvantageous in terms of health depending on how people feel, support and encouragement of others, whether it meets personal interests and needs, and on whether it enables growth in terms that are individually and sociologically meaningful The central aspect of education is creativity (as important as literacy) Creativity comprises of imagination and original thought  Being and Food: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ The international Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)stated that “people have a fundamental right to be free from hunger” Food preparation and cooking methods are an aspect of cultural identity and local dietary habits, reflecting aesthetic and religious beliefs and feelings, as well as cultural taboos People overeat or undereat for many reasons: how they feel about themselves, personal body image, social norms, and more… Food influences health Starvation and obesity are at pandemic proportions all over the world  Being and Income: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Inequality in being experience also result from how people feel about they work For many people paid employment is not intrinsically satisfying Since the Industrial Revolution, wealthy and white collar workers look down on blur collar workers The attitudes of wealthy and white collar workers toward manual labor might influence many people not to take physical jobs even if these jobs would be meaningful and beneficial for them Many unemployed people suffer from reduction in the range of occupational options outside paid work  Being and Stable Ecosystem: ▪ People occupations are affecting environment is a frightening manner ▪ There is a significant link between people’s occupations, places, and the planet ▪ The development of and participation on health-giving and ecologically sustaining occupations and resource management demands new ways of thinking, such as restoration of healthy relationship between what people do, human societies, other living organisms, environment, habits, and modes of life  Being and Social Justice and Equity: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Social justice is fundamental to health-promotion Social justice is important for occupation-focused being that is based on beliefs about freedom, rights, and responsibilities that determine cultural and political foundations and governance of societies Occupational justice can be considered as a branch of social justice According to the Occupational justice: All people have the capacity and the rights to be they want to be without discrimination, if that is just and equitable to others People’s have the rights to have different ideas, traditions, and ways of life  Natural Health: Capacities and Creativity: ▪ Occupation is a natural underpinning of health ▪ Human brain “slips into chaos and confusion unless we constantly use it for work that seems worthwhile” (Selye) ▪ The average person, however, thinks he/she works for economic security or social status  Human Capacities: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Human capacity is used interchangeably with words, such as capability, faculty, characteristics, trait, talent, ability, potential, and others… Human capacities differ between genders and age Human capacities are the building blocks that assist development of unique natures and personalities that people express through what they do Some competencies are improved with learning and practice where some competencies are never perfected More complex capacities are integrative workings of many independent and interdependent systems  Creativity: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Creativity is one of the most complex of human capacities Creativity may manifest in many ways: mental phenomenon or vision, capability, innovative action or skills, tools, or as inspired, insightful, interpretive and innovative though and action Creative people usual traits include strong motivation, endurance, intellectual curiosity, deep commitment, independence in thought and action, a strong desire for selfrealization, self-confidence, openness, and sensitivity A recent theory of creativity proposes that humans have both the innate capacity to be creative and the biological need to express it When creativity is adequately expressed through everyday activities, it has a major impact on health and well-being    High creativity has been found to correlate with a high degree of normal, mature, and positive self-esteem There is a strong links between mental well-being, creativity, and occupation that provides meaning and purpose Many studies of creative thinking have demonstrated that creativity is fostered by: ▪ Life-long, high level, personal self-control, sustained hard work, determination, and perseverance ▪ Open, supportive, and interactive environments in which people are encouraged to advance new ideas, show initiative, and take risks    Creativity emerges in different parts of the life cycle Children are encourage to engage in creative plays, but creative behavior is harder to observe in adults The products of the technological area have affected individual resourcefulness negatively: ▪ Most people buy rather than make what they use ▪ Instead of thinking about self-creating to meet their particular needs, they prefer to spend hours viewing television, play computer games, or surf the web ▪ Despite employers calling for graduates with thought provoking creative skills, firm may maintain traditional organization structure, in which hierarchical relationships stifle individual creativity  Being and Health in Earlier Times: ▪ Both hunter-gatherer and early agrarian societies had natural balance between activity and rest, doing, and being occurred (arose) ▪ Their economic activities had built-in down time (such as singing and story telling while working) ▪ The lack of distinction between activities and down time was advantageous to health and well-being  Social Change Toward Finding Meaning Through Occupation: ▪ Karl Marx (1818-1883) stated that when work is simply a process to earn a wage for the prerequisites of living and is destructive to inner being, people are alienated by it. It is a contradiction of the nature of humankind for economic conditions to become more powerful than individuals ▪ Ruskin (1819-1900) suffered from several illnesses during his youth and found occupational regime, such as walking, reading, writing, and paining that met his physical and psychological needs. He challenged classical political economies by accusing them of ignoring the human factor  Morris (1834-1896) created the concept of utopia: ▪ Morris’ utopian world is where people are free and independent and where poverty, exploitation, competition, and money do not exist ▪ Deplored the fact that machines took away peoples’ craftsmanship and that the commerce had become a “sacred religion” turning work from a pleasurable activity to pure drudgery ▪ Morris believed that most work could be done with actual pleasure in the doing ▪ Morris recognized that there are two types of work: One good and one bed; one close to blessing, a lightening of life; the other a curse, a burden to life  Marx, Ruskin, and Morris upheld the view that doing must be inclusive of the being aspects of meaning and purpose to be true to human nature and health giving  Being and Health in Modern Times: ▪ Amabile and Kramer found that among the many emotions constituting a person’s reactions during the a day’s work, the single most important is that the work is meaningful to those doing it ▪ When people have positive inner work lives, they are more creative, productive, committed, and collegial in their jobs ▪ Amabile and Kramer also found that that when senior personnel routinely undermined meaning, creativity, productivity, and commitment, they also damaged the inner work lives of their employees  The concept of Flow: ▪ Flow is characterized as complete absorption and spontaneous joy in activity: “To be in the moment”, “in the zone”, “on fire” , etc… ▪ Being “in the flow” means loosing self in the activity, lose awareness of other things, as well as loosing sight on other self needs ▪ The most challenging feelings to the “flow” are apathy, boredom, and anxiety  The underpinnings of people quality of life are: ▪ Occupations to satisfy basic being needs ▪ Experience well-being ▪ Achievement of happiness ▪ Achievement of meaning, purpose, freedom, safety, and security    It is well recognized that when people are absorbed in what they are doing, they are able to resist disease and are impervious to many problems and life difficulties Regardless of this recognition, today’s medical research is very limited It is important that being aspect of occupation are not overlooked in research  Mental, Physical, and Social Well-Being: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Mental, physical, and social well-being are fostered by environments that create meaningful opportunities for people of all ages and circumstances Whatever affects one aspect of health in turn affects other aspects This is attributable to the interconnectedness of brain mechanisms Unhappiness can lead to physical disorders, social disorders, depression, etc… Reduced opportunities to meet being needs could lead to isolation, distress, as well as hindering the psychological, emotional, and cognitive development of children, adolescents, and adults  The WHO Mental Health Policy and Service Guidance Package recognizes that: ▪ The impact, value, and visibility of mental health promotion polices needs to be enhanced and monitored ▪ The social integration of severely marginalized groups, such as refugees, disaster victims, mentally disabled, the very old, abused children and women, and the poor should be addressed ▪ Programs are required at all stages of life to encourage creativity and promote selfesteem and self-confidence  Social Change Toward Finding Meaning Through Occupation: ▪ In terms of health promotion, the WHO calls for action that generates living, leisure, and working conditions that are stimulating, satisfying, and enjoyable, as well as meeting health’s basic prerequisites ▪ However, currently there are very few medical or population health programs that address the potential holistic health impact of a range of occupations and the meaning they hold for people ▪ Some ongoing research include: ▪ Illness and safety in paid employment ▪ Physical exercises to reduce the incidence of noncommunicable diseases ▪ Reduce and/or reverse the obesity epidemic in affluent countries  Work as a source of Well-Being: ▪ Studies suggest that unemployment and poor health are strongly associated/correlated ▪ Unemployment causes an compounds health problems ▪ People’s spiritual quest for meaning and purpose are compromised by poverty, low socioeconomic status, poor education, and poor housing conditions  Unemployment is also associated (indirectly) with: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ High divorce rates Child and spouse abuse Unwanted pregnancies Abortions Reduced birth-weight and child growth Perinatal and infant mortality Increased morbidity in families    About one in five unemployed people report a deterioration in their mental health since being out of work There is a link between unemployment, suicide, and deliberate selfinjuries A longitudinal study of more than 3,000 young Australians found that people dissatisfied with their employment were no better off in terms of self-esteem, levels od depression, or luck od psychological well-being than people who were unemployed  The WHO provides guideline suggesting that a special emphasis should be given to those aspects of workplaces and the work process itself which promote mental health: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Increasing an employer’s awareness of mental health issues Identifying common goals and positive aspects of the work process Creating a balance between job demands and occupational skills Training in social skills Developing the psychosocial climate of the workplace Provision of counseling Enhancement of working capacity Early rehabilitation strategies Ch.8 – Occupational therapy, health and medicine homework Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • The human need to belong is strongly • Donne (1572-1631) said: “No man is an island, entire to itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main…” • d’Estain stated: “You cannot build a society purely on interests, you need a sense of belonging • The WHO stated that belonging through doing is about creating supportive environments in increasingly complex social and political contexts because health for all depends on taking care of each other and the natural environment Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Belonging as an Aspect of Doing: • Being with other people provides fundamental meaning of occupation • It is through doing things (occupations) with others that bonds are created, as well as shared interests, intimacy, and other experiences • Belonging means to be recognized as a friend, member, supporter, or devotee of a group • Networks of people relate to each other in many different ways and formats: family member, friends, member of the same ethnic or religious groups, generation, sport team, work place, associates, volunteers, neighbors, citizens, and so forth… • Belonging is almost never static, but rather fluid (different belongings throughout the lifespan) Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Group occupations offer opportunities for doing things together to meet a common purpose, which can enhance the pleasure and meaning derived from the doing • Sharing values, stories, and symbols underpin the emotional response to occupations and assist in understanding of how to act • There is shared understanding of obligations and sense of solidarity Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Belonging and Health: • There are social and mental health benefits align with belonging • Occupations that provide contact with others are recognized as a foundation for physical well-being and an essential element of mental well-being, as evidenced by the poor health outcomes of being isolated, shunned, or excluded • For these reasons mental health occupational therapists, psychologists, and other mental health providers conduct group work (occupations) and community activities • Studies show that the higher the frequency of sharing a naturally occurring pleasant occupation, the more vitality people report three weeks later Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • A nine-year study of 7000 Californians found that those with intimate relationships and a network of social ties extending out into the community had better health and lived longer • In contrast, people with poor relationships and/or socially isolated had poorer health and died in younger age • Lack of belonging has long been recognized as a risk to health • Since the beginning od written history, people use exile, exclusion, and imprisonment as a form of punishment • Isolation is only second to death in severity of punishment Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Ethnic minority and new immigrants populations can also struggle to gain a sense of belonging • This could be caused by blatant behavior of members of the host community that makes newcomers feel uncomfortable, unwelcome, or excluded from occupations that confer social and material benefits • Engaging in occupation which are compatible with the host community can make a big difference between being welcomed, tolerated, or excluded Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing Prerequisites to Natural Health • Belonging and Peace: • Peace is more assured when communities have strong networks of social connectedness, include diverse people, and community members support each other • Occupations that stimulate a sense of belonging are fostering cohesion and peaceful coexistence • Externally criteria for belonging include: • Gender • Sexuality • Class • Ethnicity • Nationality • Citizenship Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • The social, political, economic, and health impact of discrimination and exclusion is evident in people’s status in society • This has also great impact on available resources, type of available work (occupations), and state of health relative to other groups • The exclusion is the beginning of societal division, distrust, and the radicalization of disaffected groups Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Belonging and Shelter: • There is a very strong connection between having a shelter and a sense of belonging • Examples of shelters are: • Medieval times’ monasteries • Alms Houses • Modern day shelters for homeless, abused, and so forth • Belonging and Education: • The importance of printing • First books were printed in Latin, but late in individual national languages (not regional dialects) • This helped building a national sense of belonging • Belonging to society as a literate person means having a greater capabilities to participate in commerce and civil affairs and, for women, substantially higher survival rate for their children Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Access to education is traditionally hardest for girls living in poverty • There is a societal understanding that women belong in the domestic sphere, and after marriage they will be taking care of by their husbands and the husbands’ families • This arrangements can be perilous if a woman never marries or become a widow • The United Nations’ Declaration of Human Rights Education stated: • All educational providers, from the preschool to tertiary level, to teach principles of respect, tolerance, and recognition • United Nation intends to foster peace by creating communities in which diverse people can belong and concerned citizens challenge discrimination and injustice • The universal right to education has only recently been secured for children with disabilities in some western countries; in others, it remains a distant dream Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • The food that parents prepare for their children inducts them into a culture of familiar tastes and smells, creating a sense of belonging at a visceral level • In early human history the available food supply dictated practical limits on how many people could belong to a group and the density of those groups in a particular geographical area • Transitioning from hunter-gatherer to agrarian lifestyles allowed communities to generate food surpluses, which meant they could support people who did not themselves produced food Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • At a societal level, people who live in increasingly multicultural countries are forging a more encompassing national identity as they taste and accept ethnic dishes into their everyday diet • Belonging and Income: • In effort to ensure all people belong to peaceful, just, and prosperous societies, the United Nation’s Millennium Declaration had a major focus on poverty reduction • Belonging is enhanced when people are empowered within their intimate relationships at home and at social levels • Because of many countries’ political unrest, people are being forcefully misplaced • Forceful emigrants experience social disadvantages and relative poverty after resettlement, which also causes poor mental health • Poverty creates a daily burden, social isolation, and a lower sense of belonging to their communities • Poverty adds an additional layer of stigma and exclusion Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Belonging: Stable Ecosystem and Sustainable Resources: • Belonging includes a sense of being connected to places, traditions, and practices, as well as to people • Some, often overlooked, occupations significant to belonging are: gathering food, cooking, washing, eating, sleeping, cleaning, and so forth… • These activities (occupations) connect and link to almost all of humanity • Spiritual belonging is the connection to a birthplace, to sites of religious artifacts, to the resting places of the dead, and so forth… • Belonging may be experienced as a deeply felt moral and ethical responsibility to look after the land or a sense of entitlement to be born there, sacrifice, tragedy, or bloodshed • Felt belonging might also be embedded in the sights, sounds, smell, color, or texture of the place Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • When occupation are undertaken with sustainability in mind, people express feelings of belonging and responsibility toward all life forms on the planet • Other occupations, such as excessive alcohol consumption, undermine community cohesion in many ways: • • • • Traffic, workplace, and home accidents Violence Unwanted pregnancies Sexually transmitted diseases, and more…. Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Belonging: Social Justice and Equity: • Social justice is essential if everyone is to experience a sense of belonging in the society in which they live • Unfortunately, human history is abounding incidental or deliberate instances of injustice and inequities • In agrarian societies women lost their influence because their knowledge of food gathering was rendered obsolete • Men concentrated power in their hands by controlling food surpluses and forceful acquisition of lands • On average women make less money than men – even in the same occupational positions Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Rules for Health through Belonging: From Ancient to Modern: • There is a connection between belonging and health • Some people enjoy health and material benefits of social connectedness, whereas others belong to resource-poor networks or experience social isolation • Biological Basis of Belonging and Health: • Historically, people lived in small bands: 25 to 50 people • Killing animals required the cooperation of a group of skilled hunters • There was no stored food and no crops or domesticated animals; therefore, the only exempt from good hunting and gathering were infants, too old, and sick • Early humans had remarkable health Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Belonging and Health in Early History: • In Roman culture there was sharp division between citizens, foreigners, slaves, and freedman (or ex-slaves) Occupational therapy, health and medicine homework • Mayan civilization: building pyramids was an act of community belonging • American Indian believed that family, community, the tribe, and the universe, including the physical environment, are all connected in the Circle of Life Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Belonging and Health in Modern Times: • A sense of belonging is commonly assumed to be a basic human need, akin to the need for food and shelter • A study by Baumeister and Leary (1995) suggested that people in all cultures readily form bonds, resist breaking them, and spend a lot of time thinking about relationships. • Deficits in belonging are associated with physical and psychological health problems, including: • • • • • Anxiety Depression Loneliness Behavioral pathologies Eating disorders Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • Belonging and Complex Social Structures: • The need for belonging is increasingly harder • Humans small groups became large cities (between 10,000BC and 15,000AD) • There was initial detrimental effect on people’s physical health, such as: • • • • • • A decline in stature (approximately 7 inches in men and 5 inches in women) Increased in dental decay (consumption of sugars) Severe undernourishment of pregnant and lactating women Quadrupled incidence of anemia About 70% of the adult population suffers from OA Increase cases of infectious diseases Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • The socio-occupational consequences of belonging to larger, settled communities were also significant • The larger settlements gave rise to the major language families: • • • • • Afro-Asiatic Indo-European Elamo-Dravidian Sino-Tibetan Austronesian Ch.8 – Occupation: Belonging Through Doing • With time and technical/cultural progress people started to identify themselves with their groups and recognized outsiders as being from other places • People started to have tendency to judge people through physical attributes, such as: • • • • • Skin color Hair color Facial features Statue Patterns of fat distribution, and more…. • The preferences of specific features is one basis of mate selection and having a sense of belonging
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