The human body structures

The human body structures



The human body structures are organised into numerous systems, each having their own particular function. A group of organs, tissues and cells that work together to perform important roles in the body are called body systems. The human body is composed of several different systems including the Integumentary, Urinary, Muscular, Nervous, Skeletal, Immune, Digestive, Endocrine and Circulatory System. All these body systems are crucial for out bodies to be functioned the correct way. In this case study we will be mainly discussing the anatomical and physiological functions of the Cardiovascular, Renal and Respiratory system and how the disease ‘Metabolic Acidosis’ affects its homeostasis. The report will also discuss how the body systems integrate and affect one another during this homeostasis disruption. The human body structures


Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Body

The human body must utilise many physiological modifications to maintain homeostasis. One of these adaptations is having an acid-base balance maintained. To have a normal cell metabolism, function and physiology, it is crucial to have an acid-base homeostasis as well as pH regulation (Hamm et al., 2015). Normally, the pH of the human body varies between 7.35 to 7.45, making the average at 7.40. This is where the pH is at neutral, not too acidic and not too basic. This pH level is perfect for various biological processes, oxygenation of the blood being one of the main processes (Hopkins, 2019). The end products of cellular metabolism are formed by body acids. When physiological conditions are normal, an individual generates 50-100 mEq of acid a day (Hamilton 2017). This acid derives from the metabolism of nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates and fats. Additionally, base is lost in the stool. Therefore there must be a balance in the excretion and neutralisation in acid production for the maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. The main regulators of the acid-base homeostasis are the kidneys and the lungs. Carbon dioxide is released from the lungs which is the end product in carbonic acid (Hamilton, 2017).

All the systems in the human body rely on pH balance, but the respiratory and renal system are the main modulators. The respiratory system uses carbon dioxide to adjust pH, then upon expiration, the carbon dioxide is released to the environment (Hopkins 2019). Carbon dioxide also creates a buffer system to help maintain blood pH at a normal range. A buffer is a type of chemical system that stops a thorough change in pH. This is done by reducing the changes in the concentrations of hydrogen ion when there’s excess base or acid. Some of these buffer systems include phosphate, carbonic acid, plasma proteins and bicarbonate buffers. The kidneys also assist in maintaining acid-base balance and blood plasma pH by expelling hydrogen ions and creating bicarbonate (Hamm et al., 2015). They also have the function of controlling blood pressure and getting rid of wastes through urination. The kidneys are structured as a bean shape and the two have brown organs that are as big as human fists. The renal capsule, a strong seal of fibrous connective tissue, covers the pair and is protected by layers of fat (Keoppen 2009). There are two components in the function of the kidneys; one is to effectively reabsorb all the filtered bicarbonate and the other to produce new bicarbonate to replace the normal/pathological acids consumed. During standard conditions, around one-third to a half of the kidneys’ net acid excretion is in the form of titratable acid (Hamm et al., 2015). The remaining half or two-thirds is ammonium excretion. The kidneys also regulate blood pressure and this is done changing the liquids that are outside of the cells to create long-term pressure on the arteries The human body structures

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